Mille ans de langue française, tome 1 : Des origines au français moderne (French Edition)

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ASM Basket. Information about Page Insights Data. Neither assimilationist nor associationist, rural schools were designed to train a new generation of African "peasants", who would embrace a dose of modernization while remaining deeply attached to their native soils. Authorities across the empire sought to show that they no longer provided metropolitan-style education and that the children of the empire were now being educated according to their own needs and particular aptitudes.

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The move away from metropolitan educational norms had intensified after the First World War, as part of a broader shift away from policies of assimilation. But if French officials were convinced that colonial policy had been put on a new footing, many foreign observers were less swayed. By hosting an Intercolonial Conference on Education in the Colonies and Overseas Territories—one of the more important conferences to be organized as part of the Colonial Exposition of —French authorities hoped to present a very different picture 1. The conference was to showcase the development of new types of native education that corresponded to colonial—and not metropolitan—settings.

Studying the adaptation of each of these systems to its milieu is an indispensable task [ Local administrations developed larger, better-staffed education departments that sought to consolidate their independence from the metropolitan Ministry of Public Instruction 3. As the colonies worked to develop new forms of education that were "adapted" to local contexts, incompatibilities proliferated—not only among the various native school systems of the French empire, but also between "native schools" and "metropolitan schools". During the interwar period, the Colonial Ministry maintained only a skeletal education office, which, in , was headed up by Crouzet 4.

By , "adapted education" was a principle on which French colonial authorities could agree. At the Intercolonial Conference on Education in the Colonies, even the delegate from the centralized Ministry of Public Instruction Henri Gautier accepted that assimilationist education was inappropriate for natives. Gautier Caf declared that:. By bringing colonial education officials together in Paris, the Intercolonial Conference on Education in the Colonies proposed to compare and contrast the ongoing efforts of the various colonies and overseas territories.

This was certainly true when it came to Indochina, where a string of reforms had produced a new Franco-Vietnamese school system for native children in Cochin China, Annam and Tonkin. First established in , this school system was significantly revised in and , as officials struggled to agree on the contours and content of native education. If the new school system was to navigate a careful course between the preservation of tradition and a certain modernization, the sheer number of reforms points to lingering uncertainties about what preservation and modernization meant in the context of French Indochina.

But if there were still hesitations, the interwar trend clearly led farther and farther away from metropolitan-style schooling. With each round of reform, instruction in French and other Western academic subjects was further reduced to make added room for instruction in local languages and local subjects. At the same time, Franco-Vietnamese schools turned increasingly towards vocational training in agriculture and crafts. Gail Kelly has shown how fully schools came to promote pastoral, neo-traditionalist visions of "native life"; these representations were designed to carefully orient and restrict the ways in which young Indochinese imagined themselves and their future Kelly , b, c; Lebovics As inspector of primary education at the Government General in Dakar, Davesne could speak with authority.

He quoted extensively from the most recent set of reforms, which dated from ; but after noting that "all these recommendations are excellent", he concluded that "the goal that they define is far from being reached" Davesne 88 7. As far as Davesne was concerned, French West Africa had yet to develop a school system that was adapted to the needs of Africans and those of the colonial state. He noted that practical training in gardening and manual trades was still underdeveloped and that schools still maintained an "excessive" focus on academics.

No French official could speak more authoritatively than Hardy on the subject of "native education". He noted the general move towards localized education, which "tries to adapt itself exactly to the aptitudes, habits and needs of the milieu". Hardy a: summed up this adaptation process, noting:.

He observed that, since his own departure from Dakar in , "a whole series of measures seemed to indicate a trend away from policies of adaptation and a return to principles of assimilation that we thought were out of date". Hardy went on to note, however, that it was more a case of "wavering principles" than of a "concerted reaction". If the development of adapted education had been interrupted, Hardy a: concluded his report more optimistically, noting that since the previous year, "a new inspiration has been driving education in AOF". As I argue below, the education reforms that were conceived and implemented after were part of a broader effort to rethink "progress" in French West Africa. Through school reforms of the s, colonial authorities worked to map out a "middle way" that would reconcile African tradition with a new colonial modernity. His book pointed to a more urgent problem that had scarcely been addressed: the education of the "African masses".

Worse, by producing "detribalized" elites, colonial schools had helped to undermine the very foundations of native societies. But the first priority of the new governor general was to quickly invent and implement a new type of school for the African masses.

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Only 41, children were enrolled in these "official schools" He made it abundantly clear, however, that mass education did not simply mean opening more schools of the existing variety. Founded as of , these schools were promoted by the Government General throughout the decade and until the end of the Second World War. Rural schools, and the specific type of education they provided, marked an entire generation of African students In order for natives to go to school, schools must first go to the natives" Charton did not mince words when he described the education that rural schools should deliver.

In one of his first sets of instructions, he insisted: "No curricula that are too academic, no pompous lessons, no civic education, we are staying in the bush, in our village, the horizon stops there" The emphasis on limiting the horizons of African students was not entirely new. But as we will see, during the s, these arguments were taken much farther as colonial authorities mapped out a more restrictive vision of "progress" and how it should be pursued in the African interior. These new schools did not award any type of diploma, for diplomas indicated the possibility of further education, of becoming something other than a peasant, and this is exactly what colonial authorities now wished to discourage.

After completing several years of summary schooling, students were to return to the land, where they would become colonizers of sorts, spreading techniques and ideas that would improve native life and bring villages more fully into the colonial economy. No colony adopted these new guidelines with more alacrity than French Sudan. In a circular to all the teachers in French Sudan, Assomption offered a succinct but telling description of the pedagogical approach that was to be used at rural schools.

Each of the academic subjects—which he listed as morality, history, geography, science, and hygiene—was to be limited in scope, concentrating on the local, the familiar and the observable. Assomption recommended that lessons on morality touch on the following points: "Family, the village, France. Life in a society. The nourishing earth, the charm of rural life, its advantages. The farmer: the satisfaction of being useful, of producing. The good farmer: thrifty, provident, assiduous, tenacious, etc" Regarding history lessons, Assomption urged: "Teach the history of the village and the canton, exclusively through anecdotes.

Three essential points. All of the subject matter for geography lessons was also to be found within a small radius, encompassing the village and its immediate environs. He added: "Keep to things that are visible and verifiable. The village, its location, its different quarters. The surrounding land and its features" ibid.

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Lessons on science and hygiene were to follow this same general pattern. From the beginning of the century, agricultural training had rarely been completely absent from colonial schools. But aside from the years of the First World War—when colonial schools were drawn into broader efforts to supply the metropole with agricultural products—such training had remained rather marginal.

School gardens were often little more than neglected plots in which teachers and students alike took scant interest The official school programs of claimed that "school gardens exist at almost all schools during part of the year at least". But if the programs encouraged schools to teach some basic agricultural skills, such training did not even figure in the weekly schedule that indicated how the thirty-hour school week was to be divided up The situation changed markedly after , as rural schools came to include not only gardens, but also barnyards, fields and small plantations.

School farms were supposed to be educational: they were to show schoolchildren and villagers the immediate advantages of new crops and improved farming techniques.

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From the beginning, however, the boundary between agricultural training and agricultural production proved tenuous; this was especially true in French Sudan, the pacesetter in the field of rural education. To spur local authorities on, officials in Dakar published colony-by-colony figures that showed the state of agricultural production on school farms As these rankings suggest, success in rural education was increasingly measured in agricultural—and not academic—terms.

Money made from the sale of school crops, produce and livestock went to mutuelles scolaires, or school-run savings associations After taking in 25, francs in , mutuelles scolaires in French Sudan increased their annual proceeds to 65, francs in Featuring full carbon construction for lightweight, rigidity and maximum speed, the Racer series are competition-level boards that excel in flatwater, open ocean, beach and downwind race conditions.

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