Spain

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He said "the ball was in the court" of Sanchez, though. In recent months, his party and Citizens have struck deals with Vox to take over some cities and regional governments. Bonnie Field, a professor on Global Studies at Bentley University in California, called the political situation a "mess government-wise". Higher abstention rates on Sunday showed that voters were tired of being called repeatedly to the ballot box. Spain has had four elections in as many years, two of them this year.

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Julia Giobelina, a year-old web designer from Madrid, was angry at having to vote for the second time this year. But she said she cast her ballot in hopes of stopping Vox. The new parliament, which will hold its inaugural session in early December, will include 16 parties, including several more regional ones and the anti-capitalist, pro-Catalan independence CUP party. Spain returned to democracy in the late s after a near four-decade right-wing dictatorship under the late Francisco Franco. The country used to take pride in claiming that no far-right group had seats in the national Parliament, unlike the rest of Europe.

That changed in the spring, but the Socialists' April victory was still seen by many as a respite for Europe, where right-wing parties had gained much ground. Vox relied on its anti-migrant message and attacks on laws that protect women from domestic abuse as well as what it considers leftist ideology disguised as political correctness. Nov 25 — Mar 1, Acclaimed Spanish violin soloist, leader and conductor Lina Tur Bonet presents an evening violin music in Washington, D. Nov 21, Nov 19, Nov 17 — Nov 24, Science Historian Dr. Nov 14, Nov 13 — Dec 20, Nov 11, Nov 10, Nov 7 — Nov 17, Nov 5 — Nov 19, Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.


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The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors. The Spanish Constitution of is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.

The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales General Courts. By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the ratification of the Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies Congreso de los Diputados with members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate Senado with seats of which are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.


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The Spanish Constitution of "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions". According to Amnesty International AI , government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities.

In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques sing. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions. Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country.

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They were created after the current constitution came into effect in in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain ". This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy.

The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution. Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities , were granted self-government through a rapid process.

Socialists win most seats in Spain election, as far right surges

Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, [] the Canary Islands, [] the Balearic Islands, [] and Aragon.

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The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical.

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Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities —Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time.

Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions. Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta and Melilla. These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State. The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.

The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community. After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in , Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations , enter the European Community , and define security relations with the West.


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  4. As a member of NATO since , Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms. Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad " or " Hispanismo " , as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture.

    It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy. Spain claims Gibraltar , a 6-square-kilometre 2. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne.

    The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in by the Treaty of Utrecht , in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown [] stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other.

    While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ". Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands , part of Portugal. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone nautical miles generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters 12 nautical miles.

    On 5 July , Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.

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    Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island , a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco.

    forcsoundseavan.ga It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza which was annexed by Spain in after the War of the Oranges. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish. The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: [].

    Since , CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change. In the period — more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry.